Architecting is a tool used by Program Managers (PM) and Systems Engineers in developing a system to help designers meet all stated function and physical requirements, collaborate across organizations and provides value information for decision makers. There are a number of types of Architectures that are used in system development:
- Functional Architecture: model that identifies system function and their interactions.
- Physical Architecture: model that addresses the physical layout of a system and its components in a schema.
- Reference Architecture: model that guides and constrains the development of architectures.
- Enterprise Architecture: model that describes the current and/or desired relationships between an organization’s business, mission and management processes, and the supporting infrastructure.
DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF)
In the Department of Defense (DoD), the development of an architecture for a system is called the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF). DoDAF is the overarching, comprehensive framework and conceptual model enabling the development of architectures for DoD systems. The DoDAF serves as one of the principal pillars supporting the DoD Chief Information Officer (CIO) in his responsibilities for development and maintenance of architectures
required under the Clinger-Cohen Act. There are 6 steps that make up the DoDAF Design Process. These steps are:
- Step 1: Determine Intended Use of Architecture
- Step 2: Determine Scope of Architecture
- Step 3: Determine Data Required to Support Architecture Development
- Step 4: Collect, Organize, Correlate, and Store Architectural Data
- Step 5: Conduct Analyses in Support of Architecture Objectives
- Step 6: Document Results in Accordance with Decision-Maker Needs
The documented results of the DoDAF process are organizes into the following Viewpoints (aka Architecture Types):
- All Viewpoint (AV): describes the overarching aspects of architecture context that relate to all viewpoints.
- Capability Viewpoint (CV): articulates the capability requirements, the delivery timing, and the deployed capability.
- Data and Information Viewpoint (DIV): articulates the data relationships and alignment structures in the architecture content for the capability and operational requirements, system engineering processes, and systems and services.
- Operational Viewpoint (OV): includes the operational scenarios, activities, and requirements that support capabilities.
- Project Viewpoint (PV): describes the relationships between operational and capability requirements and the various projects being implemented.
- Services Viewpoint (SvcV): is the design for solutions articulating the Performers, Activities, Services, and their Exchanges, providing for or supporting operational and capability functions.
- Standards Viewpoint (StdV): articulates the applicable operational, business, technical, and industry policies, standards, guidance, constraints, and forecasts that apply to capability and operational requirements, system engineering processes, and systems and services.
- Systems Viewpoint (SV): for Legacy support, is the design for solutions articulating the systems, their composition, interconnectivity, and context providing for or supporting operational and capability functions.
Other topics that should be known by PM with regards to Architecting include:
- The DoDAF descriptions in this website are very generic and are mostly taken from the DoDAF Architecture Framework website. Make sure you visit the actual website for the most update information and a more thorough explanation of each viewpoint.
- DoDAF Version 1.0, although outdated, has some good examples on how to construct AV’s, OV’s, and SV’s.
AcqLinks and References:
- DoDAF Architecture Framework Version 2.02
- DoD Architecture Framework Working Group Version 1.0, Volume 1: Definition and Guideline – Feb 04 (Old Version)
- DoD Architecture Framework Version 1.0, Volume 2: Product Description – Feb 04 (Old Version)
- DoD Information Enterprise Architecture Version – 7 May 2010
- DoDAF Views Required Per Document
- SMC Systems Engineering Handbook
- Functional Software Architecture
- Functional Architecture
- Website: DoDAF Architecture Framework Version 2.02