The Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase is where a system is developed and designed before going into production. The EMD Phase starts after a successful Milestone B which is considered the formal start of any program. The goal of this phase is to complete the development of a system or increment of capability, complete full system integration, develop affordable and executable manufacturing processes, complete system fabrication, and test and evaluate the system before proceeding into the Production and Deployment (PD) Phase.
See: DoD Instruction 5000.85 “Major Capability Acquisitions” Section 3.11
The Purpose of the Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase
The purpose of the EMD Phase is to: (See Milestone Activity Map)
- Develop a system or increment of capability,
- Design-in critical supportability aspects to ensure materiel availability with particular attention to reducing the logistics footprint,
- Integrate hardware, software, and human systems,
- Design for producibility,
- Ensure affordability and protection of critical program information,
- Demonstrate system integration, interoperability, supportability, safety, and utility, and
- Ensure operational supportability with particular attention to minimizing the logistics footprint
- Demonstrate Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and sustainment features are included in the design of a system
Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase Results
In the EMD phase, the system architecture and system elements down to the configuration item (hardware and software) level are defined based upon the technology selected and integrated during the Materiel Solution Analysis (MSA) and the Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction (TD) Phase. During this phase, the system design requirements are allocated to the major subsystem level and are refined as a result of developmental and operational tests. The support concept and strategy are also refined with detailed design-to requirements determined for the product support package elements.
Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase Efforts
The EMD phase consists of two major efforts: (1) Integrated System Design and System Capability and (2) Manufacturing Process Demonstration. These two major efforts integrated the end item components and subsystems into a fully operational and supportable system. They also complete the detailed design to meet performance requirements with a producible and sustainable design and reduce system-level risk. EMD typically includes the demonstration of production prototype articles or Engineering Development Models (EDM).
Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E) During the EMD Phase
During the EMD phase, a program will go through Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E). The purpose of DT&E is to inform the Program Manager and project personnel on the status of hardware and software on their program with respect to development design progress, product compliance with program requirements, and how well they are achieving Key Performance Parameters (KPPs) and Key System Attributes (KSAs).
Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase Reviews
Below are the major reviews conducted during the EMD Phase:
- Integrated Baseline Review (IBR)
- Critical Design Review (CDR)
- Test Readiness Review (TRR)
- Flight Readiness Review (FRR)
- System Verification Review (SVR)
- Functional Configuration Audit (FCA)
- Production Readiness Review (PRR)
- Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA)
Engineering & Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase Completion Criteria
The completion of the EMD phase is determined when the system design is stable and meets all its requirements, programmatic objectives and the Exit Criteria has been achieved. The following are criteria to determine if a program can continue into the Production & Deployment Phase.
- Validated capability requirements;
- Demonstrated manufacturing processes;
- Functional software sustainment processes;
- Available industrial production capabilities;
- Program security; and
- Met Exit Criteria and Milestone C entrance criteria per the MDA’s direction.
- DoD Instruction 5000.85 describes the activities conducted during and information resulting from the Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) Phase.
- See Defense Acquisition Life Cycle Wall Chart for more information on what needs to be accomplished in this phase
AcqLinks and References:
- Defense Acquisition Guidebook (DAG) – Chapter 1
- DoD Instruction 5000.85 “Major Capability Acquisitions”
- Milestone Requirements Matrix